Thanks to Sonshi's translation of the Art of War, Chapter Three: Planning Attacks.
Generally in warfare, keeping a nation intact is best, destroying a nation second best;
keeping an army intact is best, destroying an army second best;
keeping a battalion intact is best, destroying a battalion second best;
keeping a company intact is best, destroying a company second best;
keeping a squad intact is best, destroying a squad second best.
Therefore, to gain a hundred victories in a hundred battles is not the highest excellence;
to subjugate the enemy's army without doing battle is the highest of excellence.
Therefore, one who is skilled in warfare principles subdues the enemy without doing battle, takes the enemy's walled city without attacking, and overthrows the enemy quickly, without protracted warfare.
A general is the safeguard of the nation.
There are three ways the ruler can bring difficulty to the army:
To order an advance when not realizing the army is in no position to advance, or to order a withdrawal when not realizing the army is in no position to withdraw.
This is called entangling the army.
By not knowing the army's matters, and administering the army the same as administering civil matters, the officers and troops will be confused.
By not knowing the army's calculations, and taking command of the army, the officers and troops will be hesitant.
When the army is confused and hesitant, the neighboring rulers will take advantage.
Therefore, there are five factors of knowing who will win:
One who knows when he can fight, and when he cannot fight, will be victorious;
one who knows how to use both large and small forces will be victorious;
one who knows how to unite upper and lower ranks in purpose will be victorious;
one who is prepared and waits for the unprepared will be victorious;
one whose general is able and is not interfered by the ruler will be victorious.
These five factors are the way to know who will win.